Immigration, Migration, and Citizenship

Gender & Society in the Classroom: Immigration, Migration, & Citizenship

Organized by: Cassaundra Rodriguez, University of Massachusetts
Updated by: Erielle Jones, University of Illinois – Chicago

This collection of articles masterfully provide compelling analyses of how gender informs the migration process, produces new gendered outcomes and relationships, and how men and women navigate their lives as (im)migrants. Gender is central to all the research here, but gendered processes, outcomes, and experiences are shaped by the state, work, and family, as well as the intersectional identities of (im)migrants. Spanning research from several countries, these articles will prompt students to question conventional notions on how, for instance, migration leads to gendered empowerment or how human rights-based measures are automatically beneficial for immigrant women. This research also provides insights on how the consequences of migration also provide new gendered opportunities for experiencing masculinity, re-arranging care work, and creating more sustainable and supportive communities. Despite these opportunities, migration and immigration (enforcement) policies also have its costs; the article on immigrant organizing against deportation and research on migrant domestic workers underscore the enduring struggle for legibility and mobility.

Nazareno, Jennifer; Cynthia Cranford; Lolita Lledo; Valerie Damasco; and Patricia Roach. Between Women of Color: The New Social Organization of Reproductive Labor” Gender & Society, 36(3): 342-367
In this article, we examine citizenship inequalities in paid reproductive labor. Through an analysis of elder care in Los Angeles, California, based on interviews with Filipina home care agency workers and owners, we delineate citizen divisions made up of two interlocking dimensions. The longstanding U.S. welfare state abdication of responsibility for elder care for its citizens generates a racialized, gendered citizenship division that facilitates another citizenship division between women of color. The outsourcing of elder care by the government to the private sector including small business in the ethnic economy allows Filipina immigrants with legal citizenship to become middle-women minorities who hire undocumented Filipinas to provide care for white, middle-class, older adult women and their families. Through this new social organization of reproductive labor, responsibility is directed away from the state and generating tensions between women of color with different legal statuses. Our findings show how racialized, gendered inequalities are reinforced through this new social organization of reproductive labor but also demonstrate potential for undermining intersecting inequalities.

Ray, Ranita. 2022. “School as a Hostile Institution: How Black and Immigrant Girls of Color Experience the Classroom.” Gender & Society, 36(1); 88–111.
The paradox of girls’ academic gains over boys, across race and class, has perplexed scholars for the last few decades. Through a 3-year longitudinal ethnography of two predominantly economically marginalized and racially minoritized schools, I contend that while racially marginalized girls may have made academic gains, school is nevertheless a hostile institution for them. Focusing on the case of Black girls and recent immigrant girls of color, I identify three specific ways in which school functions as hostile institution for them: (1) gendered racial harassment from teachers, (2) erasure of intellect, and (3) estrangement within their communities. Furthermore, the denigration of immigrant girls becomes the conduit for misogynoir. I find that the gains of some racially marginalized girls in school often justify hostility against all of them. Bringing into conversation a feminist analysis of schooling that rejects girls’ educational gains as ubiquitous evidence of a gender revolution with a Black-colonial education framework that emphasizes schooling as a technology of oppression, I explore the current role of school as a hostile institution for Black girls and immigrant girls of color.

Onasch, Elizabeth. 2020. “Framing and Claiming ‘Gender Equality’: A Multi-level Analysis of the French Civic Integration Program.” Gender & Society 34 (3): 496-518.
The recent construction of “gender equality” as a defining value of European societies has shaped the policy goals of immigrant integration programs. This focus on “gender equality” may function, paradoxically, to exclude immigrants, if immigrant integration policies rely on stereotypical representations of immigrants and fail to acknowledge the multiple, intersecting forms of inequality that immigrant women face. This article contributes to the critical scholarship on the role of “gender equality” in the field of immigrant integration policy by examining the framing of this concept in the policy documents and implementation of the French civic integration program. Using ethnographic observations and field interviews, I illustrate how frontline workers, many of whom were women of immigrant origin, interacted with participants to frame “gender equality” in exclusionary and inclusionary ways, and how “gender equality” functioned as a racial boundary within the program. The tensions in the discourses of frontline workers mirrored those of the political context in which the policy developed; they were constrained by a difference-blind ideology of French republicanism as they insisted on “gender equality” as the pathway to belonging in France.

Yu, Sojin. 2020. “Gendered Nationalism in Practice: An Intersectional Analysis of Migrant Integration Policy in South Korea.” Gender & Society 34 (6): 976-1004.
In this article, I investigate how gendered nationalism is articulated through everyday practices in relation to immigrant integration policy and the intersectional production of inequality in South Korea. By using ethnographic data collected at community centers created to implement national “multicultural” policy, I examine the individual perspectives and experiences of Korean staff and targeted recipients (marriage migrants). To defend their own “native” privileges, the Korean staff stressed the gendered caretaking roles of marriage migrants and their contribution to the nation as justification for state support. The migrants, while critical of the familial responsibilities imposed on them in Korea, underscored their gendered value to the nation (as mothers to “Korean” children) to offset their subjugated position. The diverging perspectives of the two groups are informed by “everyday” nationalism, generated through constantly gendered terms and effects. Bringing together the literature on nationalism and migration through a focus on reproductive labor, I expose how national boundaries are drawn through quotidian practices of gendered nationalism, with significant implications for gender and ethnic hierarchies.

Andrews, Abigail. 2014. “Women’s Political Engagement in a Mexican Sending Community: Migration as Crisis and the Struggle to Sustain an Alternative.” Gender & Society 28 (4): 583-608.
This article demonstrates how Mexican women’s migration to the U.S., and subsequent return migration creates new gendered opportunities for women to become politically engaged in sustaining their communities of origin. This article includes a wide array of data, including participant observation, 51 life story interviews with Mexican Mixtec men and women in Vista, California and San Miguel, Mexico, and survey data. Faced with the ‘crisis’ of living undocumented lives in the U.S., many migrant women returned back home to help build sustainable communities through civic participation, which was previously limited to men. Women’s increased participation in these spaces were successful, newly acceptable and often, necessary as many migrant men remained in the U.S. to fulfill breadwinning duties. This article lends insights on how hostile contexts of reception and subsequent return migration creates gendered consequences and new opportunities for survival.

Das Gupta, Monisha. 2014. “’Don’t Deport Our Daddies’: Gendering State Deportation Practices and Immigrant Organizing.” Gender & Society 28 (1): 83-109.
This article focuses on Families For Freedom (FFF), a grassroots organization dedicated to assisting families that have deported or deportable immigrant fathers with criminal convictions. Das Gupta expertly outlines how researchers and activists have often relied on the affective pull of heterosexual family ties to challenge deportation. The data for this study includes personal narratives, or testimonios and interviews with members of FFF and the New York chapter of the New Sanctuary Movement. Das Gupta finds that FFF testimonios protest deportation by placing an emphasis on the emotional, care and parenting work that fathers provide for their families. Interviews with FFF leaders also reveal the strategies the organization must use to build solidarity and make criminalized fathers legible. Aside from the research and arguments presented, students will likely benefit from reading Das Gupta’s useful background on contemporary immigration and deportation policies. 

Choo, Hae Yeon. 2013. “The Cost of Rights: Migrant Women, Feminist Advocacy, and Gendered Morality in South Korea.” Gender & Society 27 (4): 445-468.
Focusing on frameworks of citizenship, this paper explores how feminist organizations in South Korea used a discourse of victimization and human trafficking to argue for human rights-based provisions for marriage migrants and migrant women working as hostesses. Choo’s data includes extensive fieldwork with Korean migrant advocacy organizations and Filipino migrant communities. Choo finds that migrant women in her study did not pursue human rights-based provisions because doing so would contradict the moral and stigma-reducing logics they have assigned to their relationships and work. Claiming victimhood to access human-rights provisions, in some cases, also appeared to make less economic sense. Highlighting immigrant women’s agency, this research illustrates how there can be a cost to accessing certain rights. 

Montes, Veronica. 2013. “The Role of Emotions in the Construction of Masculinity: Guatemalan Migrant Men, Transnational Migration, and Family Relations.” Gender & Society 27 (4): 469-490.
Building on rich ethnographic and interview data in California and Guatemala, this article illustrates how the process of migration shapes new masculinities and emotional expressions for migrant Guatemalan men. The article presents a thorough engagement with masculinities research, and the specificities of migration and the research site. Montes finds that Guatemalan men share accounts of their perilous journey(s) of migration and the experience of familial separation, resulting in feelings of pain, fear, and love. These emotional expressions resist the characteristics of hegemonic masculinity. This study suggests that migration inspires new and open emotional responses that challenge gender identities. 

Hoang, Lan Anh, and Brenda S. A. Yeoh. 2011. “Breadwinning Wives and ‘Left-Behind’ Husbands: Men and Masculinities in the Vietnamese Transnational Family.” Gender & Society 25 (6): 717-739.
This article highlights how women’s labor migration has important gendered consequences for their husbands who remain in Vietnam to care for their children. Hoang and Yeoh blend together the literatures on masculinities and the feminization of labor to frame the pertinent background of this study. Pulling from extensive survey and interview data with mostly fathers of mother-migrant households, the authors find that Vietnamese fathers and husbands are performing gendered duties often associated with wives and mothers, however, their continued waged-labor also serves the symbolic function of protecting their sense of masculinity. Unlike in other studies and contexts, this study suggests that husbands “left behind” are the common caretakers in families where wives and mothers have migrated. 

De Regt, Marina. 2010. “Ways to Come, Ways to Leave: Gender, Mobility, and Il/legality among Ethiopian Domestic Workers in Yemen.” Gender & Society 24 (2): 237-260.
Recognizing the dearth of literature on migrant domestic workers in the Middle East outside of research exclusively on exploitation or violence, this article focuses on how gender shapes the migration trajectory of migrant domestic workers and how (il)legality subsequently impacts their mobility. Spanning more than a ten-year period, the data for this article includes extensive fieldwork and interviews with Ethiopian migrant domestic workers working in Yemen. Students may appreciate reading interview narratives that demonstrate how the pre-migration options have important consequences for migration. Migrant women recruited through family members often experience more mobility compared to women who are recruited through agencies as contract workers. 

Schmalzbauer, Leah. 2009. “Gender on a New Frontier: Mexican Migration in the Rural Mountain West.” Gender & Society 23 (6): 747-767.
Challenging the notion that migration is always empowering for women, this article provides important insights on how the context of reception matters for how migrants experience their new lives and gendered relationships. Pulled from ethnographic data gathered in rural Montana, Schmalzbauer demonstrates that the process of migration and settlement in Montana reproduces gendered relationships between partners that typically impacts women in a negative way. The lack of available jobs for women means migrant Mexican women are relegated to the home, even when they may have had previous work experience. Women are further socially confined because of the geography of the area and limited public transportation. As a destination with few migrants, Mexican women also feel their presence is especially highlighted in public places which is an especially dangerous problem for undocumented women. Despite these issues, for those with children and experience living in high-crime urban areas, the area represents a safer place to raise their children. 

Acosta, Katie L. 2008. “Lesbianas in the Borderlands: Shifting Identities and Imagined Communities.” Gender & Society 22 (5): 639-659.
Building on Gloria Anzaldúa’s work, this article focuses on the intersectional identities and experiences of Latina lesbian migrants by showing how these women create borderland spaces for themselves. Data includes interviews with 15 Latina lesbian migrants living in the Northeast. Acosta finds that Lesbian migrants are confronted with a new racial hierarchy in the U.S. that influences their sense of identity, while there sexual identities are also situational because they may be open about their sexuality in the U.S., but may not identify as lesbians to their families back home. Latinas create “imagined communities” or borderland spaces, often in Latina LGBT groups, in order to find connection and solidarity. These spaces, however, are not utopias as there are still tensions that are shaped by nationality, age, and language ability. Given the intersectional themes in the article, this research can serve as a segue into a more in-depth conversation on sexuality and LGBT solidarity, and an introduction to women of color feminisms. 

Fallon, Kathleen M. 2003. “Transforming Women’s Citizenship Rights within an Emerging Democratic State: The Case of Ghana.” Gender & Society 17 (4): 525-543.
This article focuses on how women gained citizenship rights following Ghana’s democratic transition. Fallon provides a discussion of feminist perspectives on citizenship and the case of Ghana. Fallon analyzed surveys with 621 Ghanaian women, newspaper articles, and in-depth interviews with women involved in a number of women’s organizations. Pre-democratization, women’s groups focused their efforts on their social rights by meeting economic needs. After the transition, women’s organizations engaged more with the state and encouraged women’s political participation as a means to access civil and social rights. This article is appropriate for classes where students are thinking through questions of state transition and the various components of citizenship rights. 

Zentgraf, Kristine. M. 2002. “Immigration and Women’s Empowerment: Salvadorans in Los Angeles.” Gender & Society 16 (5): 625-646.
Testing whether women’s migration leads to empowerment in their post-migration lives, Zentgraf interviewed 25 Salvadoran immigrant women living and working in Los Angeles. This article engages with literature on immigrant women and work and provides a background on the 1970s-80s wave of Central American migration to the United States. Salvadoran women interviewed mostly adhered to a traditional division of household labor, but shared decision-making power. Many women also migrated to the U.S. with paid work experience, but their post-migration labor was experienced as more valuable. Women in this new context also experienced more mobility. Zentgraf argues, however, women’s assessment of their post-migration experience is shaped by what their experience was before migrating; the few women who experience middle class lifestyles in El Salvador were less satisfied in the United States compared to women who had working class lives in their home country. Post-migration, women can be empowered in new ways, but this study certainly complicates the assumption that women will be automatically empowered in the U.S. context.